Thursday, September 16, 2010

out of Tao into Tao

Earth - Moon - Mars - Asteroid Belt - Europe - Jupiter - Saturn -
limits of the Solar System - triple system of Alpha Centauri -
the local area of the galaxy - the Milky Way - Andromeda -
the Local Supercluster - the Universe

Tao is the common heritage of mankind

Abdus Salam
(Jhang, january 29, 1926 – Oxford, november 21, 1996)

Tao level 0: All about Tao and Tao about All

The dream, or myth, of theoretical physics is Unified Field Theory , a quantum-relativistic theory that unifies the four forces of gravity, electromagnetic and nuclear weak/strong and provides all the entities of the standard model.

A theory of this scale would bring back the level 0 to the 800'successes of classical physics, when it seemed that everything in the physical universe were known or knowable, and possibly formally describable.

To date the best result in this direction was achieved in 1967-68 by Nobel Laureates in Physics 1979 Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam e Steven Weinberg integrating the weak nuclear force with electromagnetism in the electroweak theory.

Many problems do believe that a unification of this kind is almost impossible:
  • the fact that gravity seems essentially non-quantistic and therefore not integrable with other quantum field equations. The research of the quantum of gravity, the graviton, is currently only a hypothesis.
  • the fact that there are at least two models of particles, the standard one and the cosmological, not compatible each other.
  • the fact that the most advanced theories of integration such as string theory, superstrings and M-theory, though with significant theoretical results seem more some sophisticated mathematical artifices, whose conclusions are not provable by experiment.
  • at a more fundamental level the Gödel's incompleteness theorems, show that the validity of a formal theory is not deductible from the theory itself but only from a wider theory, or meta-theory.
The dream of some authors about the Unified Theory is to find the "signature of God", a particular formal sign indicating the basic structure of our Universe.

Monday, September 13, 2010

4'33'' Tao-atonal perfection

John Cage
4'33'' for piano (1952)

Contraria Sunt Complementa In Tao

Niels Henrick David Bohr
(Copenaghen,  october 7, 1855 – Copenaghen, november 18, 1962)

Assistens Kirkegård - Copenhagen

Tao-tonal perfection

Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli
Carlo Maria Giulini
Wiener Symphoniker

Piano Concerto No. 1 in C Major, Op. 15: III. Rondo. Allegro

Tao level 0: instantly co-related Tao

In 1935 Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) published a paper debating whether quantum mechanics could be considered a complete theory of Level 0.

The issue concerned the fact that a measurement performed on a portion of a quantum system can propagate instantaneously (Copenhagen interpretation) an effect on the result of another measure, then run to another part of the same quantum system, regardless of the distance separating the two sides. This effect is known as "instantaneous action at a distance" and is incompatible with the basic postulate of relativity, which considers the speed of light the limit at which can travel any kind of information.
The EPR paradox is actually a physical effect, the interpretation of which has the paradoxical aspects in the following sense: if a quantum system we assume some real weak and general conditions which must be reasonably true for any theory that describes physical reality without contradicting relativity (we refer to them as "realism", "location" and "completeness"), then we arrive at a contradiction. However it is noteworthy that quantum mechanics itself is not inherently contradictory, it does not appear to contradict relativity.
Five months later,
Niels Bohr, one of the fathers of quantum mechanics, answered the argument of EPR with an article titled the same way. In the original EPR paper was not actually proposed any experiment. It has been David Bohm, in 1951, to propose a reformulation of the paradox in terms more easily provable experimentally.

The thought experiment devised by Bohm considerations of EPR can be described as follows: suppose that two atoms divide from a molecule and travel in opposite directions at the speed of light. A property of atoms or particles in general, is a quantum state, or quantum number, called "spin", which should represent the classically rotation of the atom upon itself. The spin state can be +1, or "on" or -1, or "down", as the two possible directions of rotation, and is a relatively easy measured it with precision. Since the original molecule that generated the atoms did not have spin, for spin conservation if an atom has spin +1, then necessarily the other has -1. The problem, quite different from billiard balls in classical physics, is that spin state is not really defined until it is actually measured, otherwise for both atoms is undefined.
Suppose then that after 10 years, when the two atoms are within 20 light years away, we provide a measure of spin on an atom, and then automatically sets up the state.
The question of EPR is: how does the other atom instantly arise in the opposite state?
The paradox of E-P-R is directly related
all'quantum entanglement or quantum correlation, a quantum phenomenon with no classical analog, in which each quantum state of a set of two or more physical systems depends on the states of each system in the combination, although these systems are spatially separated. The term is sometimes rendered as 'non-separability' as an entangled state implies the presence of correlations between observable physical quantities of the systems involved. For example, one can create a system consisting of two particles whose quantum state is such that - whatever the value of some observable property taken from one of the two particles - the corresponding value given the other particle will be opposite the first, despite the postulates of quantum mechanics that predict the outcome of such measures is impossible. Consequently in the presence of entanglement measurement performed on a system seems to instantly influence the state of another system: in fact, it is easy to show that the measurement has nothing to do, this is meaningful only in relation to the measurement result, not when the measure. There is a theorem which states that it is impossible to convey through this property information at speeds exceeding that of light. You can not exploit this property for any type of transmission, because in quantum mechanics is impossible to determine the outcome of a measure through the act of measuring.
Entanglement is a property of quantum mechanics that led Einstein and others to be dissatisfied with the theory.
In 1935, formulated the EPR paradox, demonstrating, making use of Entanglement, that quantum mechanics is a
non-local theory .
It is true that quantum mechanics has proven capable of producing correct experimental predictions to a precision never achieved before and that
associated with the phenomenon of quantum entanglement were actually  observed.

From 1982 to 1999 a series of experiments, carried out by the Alain Aspect group and others, have shown that the measured correlations follow the predictions of quantum mechanics.

In a key experiment in 1997 N. Gisin et. al. of University of Geneva have separated two dual photons (twin-photons) of 27 Km., and changing the state to only one of these automatically and simultaneously changed the state of the other. Gisin explains:

"What is fascinating is that entangled photons forms a single object. Even when the twin photons are separated geographically, if one of them is modified then the other photon is changed automatically and undergoes the same change."

Since the assumption of Big Bang at time zero all matter in the universe was collapsed into a single singularity, there are reason to believe that all particles of the universe, now, are all united by entanglement, regardless of the distance,  and a change in the quantum state of any particle has a quantum-
probability correlation which effects any and every other particle or quantum entity in the universe, and vice versa.
This, together with the coupling of the mass-particles with the Anderson-Higgs field and with the unrestrained probabilistic dynamics of each particle is probably the maximum example of the Indra Net perceived and described about 2600 years ago.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

out of Tao

C. Flammarion
wood carving
Paris 1888

towards a meta-cyberTao

From 1946 to 1953 were held in New York by initiative of Warren McCulloch a historical series of conferences whose general theme was to set the foundations for a "general science of the workings of the human mind". Since its interdisciplinary intent, that went from systems theory to cybernetics to cognitive sciences, the basis were born for the establishment of a meta-cybernetics, or second-order cybernetics: a cybernetic theory/model on cybernetic systems that would include the Observer.

In the figure some participants to the Tenth Conference  on Cybernetics, April 22-24, 1953, Princeton, N.J., sponsored by Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation

First row:
T.C. Schneirla, Y. Bar-Hillel, Margaret Mead, Warren S. McCulloch, Jan Droogleever-Fortuyn, Yuen Ren Chao, W. Grey-Walter, Vahe E. Amassian.
Second row:
Leonard J. Savage, Janet Freed Lynch, Gerhardt von Bonin, Lawrence S. Kubie, Lawrence K. Frank, Henry Quastler, Donald G. Marquis, Heinrich Klüver, F.S.C. Northrop.
Third row:
Peggy Kubie, Henry Brosin, Gregory Bateson, Frank Fremont-Smith, John R. Bowman, G.E. Hutchinson, Hans Lukas Teuber, Julian H. Bigelow, Claude Shannon, Walter Pitts, Heinz von Foerster.

The main group included:
  • Gregory Bateson; anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician and cyberneticist
  • Heinz von Foerster; biophysicist, scientist combining physics and philosophy and architect of cybernetics
  • Ralph W. Gerard; neurophysiologist and behavioral scientist known for his work on the nervous system, nerve metabolism, psychopharmacology, and biological basis of schizophrenia
  • Paul Lazarsfeld; sociologist and founder of Columbia University's Bureau for Applied Social Research
  • Kurt Lewin; psychologist, often regarded as the founder of social psychology
while some invited guests were, among others:
  • Erik Erikson; developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development
  • Claude Shannon; electronic engineer and mathematician, "the father of information theory"

Monday, September 6, 2010


quantum Tao and Tao of quantum

Karl Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck, called Max
(Kiel, april 23, 1858 – Göttingen, october 4, 1947)

Playfulness (Page of Wands)

Life is rarely as serious as we believe it to be, and when we recognize this fact, it responds by giving us more and more opportunities to play.
The woman in this card is celebrating the joy of being alive, like a butterfly that has emerged from its chrysalis into the promise of the light. She reminds us of the time when we were children, discovering seashells on the beach or building castles in the sand without any concern that the waves might come and wash them away in the next moment. She knows that life is a game, and she's playing the part of a clown right now with no sense of embarrassment or pretense.
When the Page of Fire enters your life, it is a sign that you are ready for the fresh and the new. Something wonderful is just on the horizon, and you have just the right quality of playful innocence and clarity to welcome it with open arms.

The moment you start seeing life as non-serious, a playfulness, all the burden on your heart disappears. All the fear of death, of life, of love - everything disappears. One starts living with a very light weight or almost no weight. So weightless one becomes, one can fly in the open sky.

Zen's greatest contribution is to give you an alternative to the serious man. The serious man has made the world, the serious man has made all the religions. He has created all the philosophies, all the cultures, all the moralities; everything that exists around you is a creation of the serious man. Zen has dropped out of the serious world. It has created a world of its own which is very playful, full of laughter, where even great masters behave like children.

the Teh of Tao

- 6 -

The Tao is called the Great Mother:
empty yet inexhaustible,
it gives birth to infinite worlds.

It is always present within you.
You can use it any way you want.

Tao duality

Tao level 0: the meta-mystery which cannot go away

In 2002 Physics World published a list of experiments considered the finest in the history of physics, the winner was the Yound experiment or the double-slit experiment and applied to light or electrons, one of the foundations that have generated experimental development of quantum mechanics.
The original experiment performed by
Thomas Young the November 24, 1803 focused on determining if light is represented by waves or particles (as suggested by Newton).
Young's experiment was simple.

A ray of sunlight was passed through a hole in a card, then reached a second screen with two holes. The light that passed through the two holes of the second screen finally ended on a screen, where it created a set of lights and shadows that Young explained as a consequence of the fact that light spreads through the two holes in the form of waves. These waves give rise, in places where you add, clear bands (constructive interference), while in places where no sisommano banded dark (destructive interference).
Young's experiment was accepted as evidence that the light shines through the waves. In fact, if light were composed of particles, would not have seen this alternation of light and shadow, but it would be observed only two light bands, one for the forum.
The experiment confirmed the predictions of
Maxwell classical electromagnetism, where there are solutions in form of  electromagnetic wave propagation.
In 1900 Max Planck, Nobel Prize in Physics 1918, suggested by other experimental data such the photoelectric effect explained by Einstein in a seminal article in 1905 - for which he received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 - that light was composed of particles or quantum of energy.
The experiment was repeated with both light and electron, with techniques that can launch a  single photon or  electron at a time:

The result is that increasing (from left to right) the intensity of photons or electrons one passies from a wave to a particle behavior. Furthermore, at  high intensity, if the slits are open you get the two wave-like behavior, it is open only one it gives the particle behavior. Electrons fired into a double-slit experiment produce the interference pattern on the screen detector (in this case a screen similar to a television set) and must move as a wave. However, on arrival, they generate a single spot of light, thus behaving as particles. It has therefore led to conclude that electrons travel as waves but  become as particles arrive arrival.If the electron was a particle we deduce that each particle passes through either of two holes in the experiment, but the interference pattern generated on the screen shows that these are waves which pass through the two holes at the same time.
Another experimental configuration requires not only a detector for the two slits but two individual detectors on each of the slits. If the detector is only one it is obtained the wave
result,if they are two one get the particles behaviour, and from which detector is activeted one can deduced from which slit the particle has passed.The quantum entities therefore prove capable of passing through two slits at the same time, not only have a sort of awareness of past and future, so that each can choose to make its contribution to the interference pattern at the correct point, what contributes to the creation of the pattern, rather than its destruction.
The result of these experiments was conclusive to formulate the wave-particle duality or the Complementarity Principle, formulated by Niels Bohr, revealeing that the observed behavior depends on the experimental configuration used to measure it, and then, ultimately, by the observer.
In the words of Richard Feynman in the double-slit experiment and in the wave/particle duality is enclosed "the quantum mystery which cannot go away” (Feynman, 1977), or the "central mystery" of quantum mechanics. This is a phenomenon which is impossible to find a classical analogous and explanation, and well represents the core of quantum mechanics. "

From this basic experiment had two dual formulations of quantum mechanics: the wave mechanics developed by Erwin Schrödinger, Nobel Prize in Physics 1933, and the particle one made by Werner Heisenber, Nobel Prize in Physics 1932.Both theories lead to two eigenvalue equations; one in the form of wave equation, the other ont he form of operator equation for the function probability amplitude, which describes in statistical / probabilistic properties of quantum entities.

The dual wave/particle behavior was always subject of intense discussions, of which the most historically significant occured between 1930 and 1980, called the the  Copenhagen interpretation, according to which conscience, through the exercise of observation, at least in part determines reality.
The Copenhagen interpretation, formulated by
Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg during their collaboration in Copenhagen in 1927, explains the double-slit experiment as follows:
  • the electron leaves the electron gun like particle;
  • immediately dissolves into a series of superimposed probability waves, or a superposition of states;
  • waves pass through both slits and interfere with each other to create a new superposition of states;
  • the detector screen, making a measurement of the quantum system, make a collapse of  the wave function into a particle, in a well defined point of the screen;
  • immediately after the measurement, the electron starts to dissolve into a new superposition of waves.
According to the Copenhagen interpretation the objective existence of an electron in a certain point in space, for example in one of the two slits, independently of any actual observation, makes no sense. The electron seems to show a real existence only when it is observerved. The reality is created, at least in part, by the observer.

In 1978 John A. Wheeler proposed an ingenious mental version of the experiment, called the delayed- choice double-slit experiment, starting from the experiments that show that when you place a detector on the slits and is analyzed by which slit the photon passes, the interference pattern disappears.
In the delayed-choice experiment of the detector is placed at a point between the two slits and the detector end, to see which path is taken by each photon after passage between the two slits, but first to get to the final detector. Quantum theory says that if you turn off the detector and intermediate analyzing the trajectories of photons, these will form an interference pattern. If however, we observe the photons to determine which slit passed, even if the observation is made after that they crossed, there will be no interference pattern. The "delayed choice" comes into play just because you can choose to analyze the photon (decision made randomly by a computer) after that the photon has passed through the slit(s). The decision, according to quantum theory, appear to affect the way in which the photon behaves when passing through the slit(s), actually just an infinitesimal fraction of time before the observation.
In the words of Wheeler, " Thus one decides the photon shall have come by one route or by both routes after it has already done its travel".
The enormous importance of the Wheeler conceptual experiment has stimulated a series of experiments to achieve results, the most conclusive of  which was produced by the Quantum Optics Group of CNRS lead by Alain Aspect with single-photons lasers using interferometry.

The result is against any classic commonsense even in the wave/particle duality, the dtected behavior depends not only by the configuration of the screen but also from that determined after the particle has passed the screen, with an effect of back-causality connection, working backwards in time.In Wheeler's words: "we have a strange inversion of the normal order of time. We, now, by moving the mirror in or out have an unavoidable effect on what we have a right to say about the already past history of that photon"

Among various theories proposed to try to explain such behavior the most fascinating is the MWI (Many Worlds Interpretation) proposed by Everett in the early 50's and supported by Wheeler.
This theory has the idea that every time the world faces a choice at the quantum level (for example if an electron can choose in which slit to pass on the double-slit experiment), the universe splits into two (or in many parts as there are possible choices), so that all options are implemented (in the experiment described above, in a world the electron passes through slit A, the other through slit B).

Thursday, September 2, 2010

the no-time of Tao

metaTao: the Tao of Tao

In common speaking a usual situation is the one when a descriptive/application term (called subject term) is applied to another term (object) within its scope of definition/application to form a predicate.
For example, the subject term "production" may be applied after the object "apple" getting the term "apple production", a well-formed predicate with meaning.
A special case is when the subject
term and the object term coincide, or where the subject term is applied to himself.
In the example we get "production of productions", a term that has still meaning and could refer generally to the study of the production techniques.
When a term is applied to subject itself is of use described by the prefix meta (from the greek: μετά = "after", "beyond", "with", "self"): metaterm.
In the
shown example a production of productions is called metaproduction.
Not all the words with the prefix meta naturally have this meaning, for example a
metaphor is not exactly a "phor of phor" while Metaphysics is not properly physics applied to physics.
In metadescriptions it is crucial to distinguish between the two levels of discourse, the level of the object elements and that relative to the metaelements which describe them. Born here a further distinction between levels, the logical one in addition to the hierarchical.
The logic levels can be organized hierarchically, and hierarchical levels can also be logical levels.
The fundamental distinction between logical and hierarchical levels is that the classes that represent the first are
one another self-contained but are always on the same logical plane: each class is an extension of the previous but still at the same logical level, such as biology contains the chemistry, chemistry include physics, etc. while the classes corresponding to logic levels are not on the same plane, between the there is a logical gap and not just an extension of new elements: a metaclass is not simply an extension of the classes that compose it but a new class with characteristics and logical/functional properties entirely new and different from those of the classes that compose it.

In the figure we have a class C2 with C1 elements, mapped to a metaclass C4 that contains as elements some class C3, of which C2 is an element,; this is further mapped to a meta-meta-upper class etc.. At each class corresponds a logic level 1, 2 etc.

Some examples of metaterms are metadata, data that organize data, metatheories, a theory on another theory, as metamathematics, where one can define metatheorems - for example on the proof theory of theorems in mathematics, or metalogic, a metatheory study of logic, especially mathematical logic.

One description area where the distinction between logical levels is essential is in the field of linguistics, the study of natural languages (such English, Italian, et.) and artificial languages, such programming languages (C, LISP, HTML, etc.). In fact, if a book on C is written in english there is no possibility of confusion between the natural language narrative subject (english) and the described object language (C), but when an english book speaks about english, such as a book of english linguistics , several problems of confusion may arise when an english word is used as a metaterm of the metalanguage subject and when instead is a term of the object language described. In this case the use of metaterms between language and metalanguage and the distinction between logical levels of discourse is essential.

In system theory a system is commonly composed of elements, but more generally may include other systems, and in this case is a metasystem, as well as a system process may be composed of other processes, and in this case is a metaprocess. The distinction between logic levels which operates the description of system/process is essential in order not to create confusion or paradoxes.