Monday, February 28, 2011

Wachet auf, ruft uns die Tao





complex Tao level 1: Dissipative Tao

A second model for complexity at level 1 - chemical - has been developed by Ilya Prigogine on the thermodynamic of complex susystems far from equilibrium, particolarly on the so-called dissipative systems,  to be understood as an thermodynamical open system which works in a state far from thermodynamical equilibrium, exchanging energy, matter and/or entropy with the environment. Dissipative systems are characterized by spontaneous formation of  anisotropy, namely of complex and oredered patterns, sometimes chaotic. Sush sustems, when crossed by increasing flows of energy and matter, may also evolve, passing from instability phases and increasing the complexity of the structure (that is the order) and decreasing their entropy (negentropy).
The term dissipative system has been named by Prigogine at the end of the '60s, lwork for which he received the 1977 Nobel prize for chemistry. The contribution of Prigogine was that to bring attention toward the connection between order and energy dissipation, differently from the static and equilibrium situations generally studied until then, and contributing significantly to the birth of what today is called epistemology of complexity.
In recent years there has been developed a vocabulary of complexity with fterms like fluctuation, stability, phase transitions. All these terms refer to the problem of time, which was one of the problems studied since the beginning of Western civilization.
The existence of a physical time separated by a
philosophical time was a central issue for the concerns of many philosophers from Aristotle to Heidegger. The latter poses the question: what is time? He answered this question by saying that the time is difference, motion, it is a representation of the difference between what comes before and what comes after. This analysis was taken further by Heiddegger which defines a very strong difference between past and future. He emphasizes that it is not time as introduced by physicists to determine the difference. This explains the fact that science is not able to reach the essence in describing the universe.


Prigogine thinks that all the developments of science in the last decade have shown that time is an essential element of the physical universe. The fact that one is forced to speak of an evolving universe, because it is the only way to describe the events that are observed, is an evidence that the direction of time is not a creation of man but is inherent nature. That's why it is no longer possible to make a distinction between physical time and philosophical time.



According to Prigogine classical physics wanted to eliminate any reference to the history, the history was conceived as something that exists only because we do not understand the causes of a physical process. The universe, however, can not be attributed to independent events, it is not so simple. We also need stochastic events (probability, random, we need to reversibility. We need random events.
Prigogine claims a new scientific logic. On the basis of his view there is distrust on the classical idea that nature always follows the simplest way.
On the contrary, he argues that the operation of the machine-nature is due to the complexity of the irreversible processes. Prigogine comes to this idea analyzing the thermodynamical phenomenon known as entropy. In thermodynamics, entropy is a state function that is introduced with the second law of thermodynamics and which is interpreted as a measure of disorder of a physical system or the universe in general. According to this definition one can say, in a non-rigorous but explanatory form, that when a system moves from an ordered state to a disordered state its entropy increases.
In the historical evolution of the universe, there is indeed an exceptional event that denies the gradual transfer of energy from order to disorder (entropy. This event was the emergence of life on earth and the consequent existence of various forms of life characterized, like other irreversible processes, by self-organization. This latter is against the alleged balance of the natural order and thus against the anti-scientific idea of the simplicity of the phenomena, which should be contrasted with the complexity, that is necessarily the absence of energy balance (entropy) and physical disorder. It then develops the non-equilibrium physics with an underlying nonlinear dynamics. The most unexpected result of this is the awareness of the constructive role of non-equilibrium: far from equilibrium coherent states and complex structures are created that could not exist in a reversible world.
In this way, nature creates dissipative systems like living beings.

ILYA PRIGOGINE: THE EXPLORATION OF COMPLEXITY


“The fact that during growth living organisms actually show a decrease of entropy production during evolution up to the stationary state … also, the fact that their organization generally increases during this evolution [which] corresponds to the decrease of entropy as studied [leads one to puzzle as to why] the behavior of living organisms has always seemed so strange from the point of view of classical thermodynamics; that the applicability of thermodynamics to such systems has often been questioned. One may say that from the point of view of the thermodynamics of open and stationary systems [nonequilibrium thermodynamics] a much better understanding of their principal features is obtained.”
One of the biggest dissipative structures: the Great Red Spot on Jupiter su Giove taken by Voyager 1 in 1979

The coordinated movements of liquids and gases leading to patterns can also be observed in the laboratory This figure shows a hexagonal pattern of liquid helium in a vessel that is heated from below. This classical experiment was first done by Bénard (1900) with oil. In the middle of each cell, the liquid rises, cools down at the upper surface and then sinks down at its border
dissipative structure evolution in typhoon Matsa (2005)

Time, Structure, and Fluctuations
Ilya Prigogine
SCIENCE, VOL. 201, 1 SEPTEMBER 1978
Copyright 1978 by the Nobel Foundation.

The author is professor of physics and chemistry, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; director of the Instituts Internationaux de Physique et de Chimie (Solvay), Brussels; and professor of physics and chemical engineering and director of the Center for Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics, University of Texas, Austin 78712. This article is the lecture he delivered in Stockholm, Sweden, on 8 December 1977 when he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Summary
Fundamental conceptual problems that arise from the macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the second law of thermodynamics are considered. It is shown that nonequilibrium may become a source of order and that irreversible processes may lead to a new type of dynamic states of matter called "dissipative structures."
The thermodynamic theory of such structures is outlined. A microscopic definition of irreversible processes is given, and a transformation theory is developed that allows one to introduce nonunitary equations of motion that explicitly display irreversibility and approach to thermodynamic equilibrium. The work of the group at the University of Brussels in these fields is briefly reviewed. In this new development of theoretical chemistry and physics, it is likely that thermodynamic concepts will play an everincreasing role.







The Center for Complex Quantum Systems
Department of Physics | The University of Texas at Austin

Friday, February 25, 2011

planetary Tao mind


Below, the Ocean - the planet's only inhabitant, organic, sentient, unimaginably powerful, profoundly indifferent to humanity. Above, the space station set from Earth, pathetically hovering over Solaris in an attempt to fathom some of the oceans mysteries, to tap a little of its knowledge. Newest arrival at the station is Kelvin, psychologist, principal character of a science fiction novel which has all the makings of a classic. This station is all but deserted, its crew reduced to a couple of half-crazed, furtive creatures, who are men of high repute among their fellow scientists. Are there but the three of them on board? Kelvin soon finds out, or thinks he does, when he is visited in the middle of the night by a lady bearing an uncanny resemblance to his long dead wife.
This is a dense and profound book, a parable and a thriller written at several levels and yielding more at each examination, yet it remains extremely readable throughout.



logical causal Tao


LOGIC IS A POOR MODEL OF CAUSE AND EFFECT

We use the same words to talk about logical sequences and about sequences of cause and effect. We say "If Euclid's definitions and postulates are accepted, then two triangles having three sides of the one equal to thee sides of the other are equal each to each." And we say, "If the temperature falls below 0°C, then the water begins to become ice."
But the if…then of logic in the syllogism is very different from the if…then of cause and effect.
In a computer, which works by cause and effect, with one transistor, triggering another, the sequences of cause and effect are used to simulate logic. Thirty years ago, we sued to ask: Can a computer simulate all the processes of logic? The answer was yes, but the question was surely wrong. We should have asked: Can logic simulate all sequences of cause and effect? And the answer would have been no.
When the sequences of cause and effect become circular (or more complex than circular), then the description or mapping of those sequences onto timeless logic becomes self-contradictory. Paradoxes are generated that pure logic cannot tolerate. An ordinary buzzer circuit will serve as an example, a single instance of the apparent paradoxes generated in a million cases of homeostasis throughout biology. The buzzer circuit 



is so rigged that current will pass around the circuit when the armature makes contact with the electrode at A. But the passage of current activates the electromagnet that will draw the armature away, breaking the contact at A. The current will then cease to pass around the circuit, the electromagnet will become inactive, and the armature will return to make contact at A and so repeat the cycle.
If we spell out this cycle onto a causal sequence, we get the following:
If contact is made at A, then the magnet is activated.

If the magnet is activated, then contact at A is broken.
If contact at A is broken, then the magnet is inactivated.
If magnet is inactivated, than contact is made.
The sequence is perfectly satisfactory provided it is clearly understood that the if…then junctures are casual. But the bad pun that would move the ifs and thens over into the world of logic will create havoc:
If the contact is made, then the contact is broken.
If P, then not P.

The if…then of causality contains time, but the if…then of logic is timeless. It follows that logic is an incomplete model of causality.

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Complex Tao level 0: Synergetic Tao

In searching new methodologies for complex systems which could overcome the difficulties of the classical ones, at physical level 0  Hermann Haken has developed the Synergetics method (from greek "working together"), created in the 70s-80s years in the field of quantum laser theory, specifically to explain the coherence of the emitted radiation, namely how photons into the laser cavity interact all together in a spatio-temporal way to form the high coherence  characteristic of the output laser radiation.
The laser radiation has two peculiar characteristics: the first is its monochromaticity, that is the light emission has a narrow wavelength (one-colored), the second is its coherence, as clear to anyone have seen a laser beam.


While the former is easily explained in terms of electron transitions between higher energy levels to lower, producing a photon energy very definite, the second can not be explained by the characteristics of the emission of photons in the laser cavity, which should emit independently of each other, and then incoherently.
This application example clarifies some key concepts used in Synergetics in a qualitative way. In the gas lasers the emitting atoms are locked in a tube with the ends of the semi-reflective mirrors that act as resonator for the emitted light. The mirrors are designed in order to reflect light in the axial direction often enough so that the corresponding wave remains for a long time within the device and can interact strongly with the atoms through the phenomenon of stimulated emission.
The atoms are excited from the outside, eg by a light pump source. After being excited, each atom can spontaneously emit a trace of light. In the usual case of a lamp, these tracks of light are emitted independently of each other incoherently, and the amplitudes are distributed as a Gaussian. When the pump intensity is increased beyond a critical value, called laser threshold, where it starts the population inversion - or when there are more electrons in higher energy levels than on the fundamental - the current state gives way to a single wave with amplitude stability on which the fluctuations of small amplitude and phase overlap. The pump intensity acts as control parameter. At its critical value, the old state becomes unstable. The emerging coherent wave acts as a order parameter that through stimulated emission forces the electrons of the gas molecules to emit light in a coherent way. This action by the order parameter over single parts of the system has been called by Haken enslavement principle. In this case it can be seen that from 1018 degrees of freedom, in which any of the 1018 atoms in the cavity emit independently of each other, and therefore the total sum is incoherent, one switch to a single degree of freedom, the coherent laser mode over thresholdl. If the pump power is still increased may appear further instabilities and a variety of temporal patterns, but even spatio-temporal, such chaotic laser light or very short laser pulses. The laser threshold, where stimulated emission occurs, show typical characteristics of a phase transition of a system  out of thermal equilibrium, such critical damping, critical fluctuations and simmetry breaking.
The high laser coherence is therefore a cooperative effect of self-organization, and the synergetic method of the enslavement principle between order parameters and the  slaved subsystems gives the relationship between macroscopic and microscopic parameters of the complex system.


Haken has expanded in subsequent years the calculation model for synergetic to a range of disciplines from chemistry to biology to economics to the study of brain and cognitive sciences and, more generally, to any form of self-organization in complex systems that exhibit an emergent behavior. Synergetics therefore stands as a new authentic methodology to address Complexity.

 In the Haken words:
"The systems under experimental or theoretical consideration I sistemi in esame sperimentale o teorico are subject to control parameters which can be fixed from the external or generated in part from the system itself. An example for an external control parameter is the absorbed power in a gas laser by the injected electrical current. An example for a internal generated control parameter are the hormones in the human body or the neurotransmitters in the brain. When the control parameters reach some specific critical values the system may become instable and to adopt a new macroscopic state. Close to these instability points, a new set of collective variables may be identified: the order parameters. They have, at least generally, a low dimensional dynamic and characterized the macroscopic system. Since the cooperation of the single parts allows the existence of order parameters which in turn determine the bahavior of the individual partsi, we speak of circular causality. According to the enslavement principle, the order parameters determine the bahavior of the individual parts, the enslaved subsystems, which can be still subjected to fluctuations. At a critical point, a single order parameter may be subjected to a non-equilibrium transition phase (bifurcation), with simmetry breaking,  with a  slowing down of critical fluctuations. 
Synergetic ha several links to other disciplines, such complexity theory"

In general, the abused term synergy may indicate a cooperative effect of reinforcement/stabilization among different internal processes of the system, or among certain internal and other external to the system.

In the  figure, for example, the two recursive closed processe red e blue are coupled by a third process which may habe synergetic effects, making a new three processes set which may have different qualities from those of the individual processes.



 

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

top Tao is like down Tao

©2009 Hougaard Malan

small Tao beauty Tao

 
SOMETIMES SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL

Perhaps no variable brings the problems of being alive so vividly and clearly before the analyst's eye as does size. The elephant is afflicted with the problems of bigness; the shrew, with those of smallness. But for each, there is an optimum size. The elephant would not be better off if he were much smaller, nor would the shrew be relieved by being much bigger. We may say that each is addicted to the size that is.
There are purely physical problems of bigness or smallness, problems that affect the solar system, the bridge, and the wristwatch. But in addition to these, there are problems special to aggregates of living matter, whether these be single creatures or whole cities.
Let us first look at the physical. Problems of mechanical instability arise because, for example, the forces of gravity do not follow the same quantitative regularities as those of cohesion. A large clod of earth is easier to break by dropping it on the ground than is a small one. The glacier grows and therefore, partly melting and partly breaking, must begin a changed existence in the form of avalanches, smaller units that must fall off the larger matrix. Conversely, even in the physical universe, the very small may become unstable because the relation between surface area and weight is nonlinear. We break up any material which we wish to dissolve because the smaller pieces have a greater ratio of surface to volume and will therefore give more access to the solvent. The larger lumps will be the last to disappear. And so on.


 

To carry these thoughts over into the more complex world of living things, a fable may be offered:

THE TALE OF THE POLYPLOID HORSE
They say the Nobel people are still embarrassed when anybody mentions polyploid horses. Anyhow, Dr. P. U. Posif, the great Erewhonian geneticist, got his prize in the late 1980s for jiggling with the DNA of the common cart horse (Equus caballus). It was said that he made a great contribution to the then new science of transportology. At any rate, he got his prize for creating - no other word would be good enough for a piece of applied science so nearly usurping the role of deity - creating, I say, a horse precisely twice the size of the ordinary Clydesdale. It was twice as long, twice as high, and twice as thick. It was a polyploid, with four times the usual number of chromosomes.
P.U. Posif always claimed that there was a time, when this wonderful animal was still a colt, when it was able to stand on its four legs. A wonderful it must have been! But anyhow, by the time the horse was shown to the public and recorded with all the communicational devices of modern civilization, the horse was not doing any standing. In a word, it was too heavy. It weighed, of course, eight times as much as a normal Clydesdale.
For a public showing and for the media, Dr. Posif always insisted on turning off the hoses that were continuously necessary to keep the beast at normal mammalian temperature. But we were always afraid that the innermost parts would begin to cook. After all, the poor beast's skin and dermal fat were twice as thick as normal, and it surface area was only four times that of a normal horse, so it didn't cool properly.
Every morning, the horse had to be raised to its feet with the aid of a small crane and hung in a sort of box on wheels, in which it was suspended on springs, adjusted to take half its weigh off its legs.
Dr. Posif used to claim that the animal was outstandingly intelligent. It had, of course, eight times as much brain (by weight) as any other horse, but I could never see that it was concerned with any questions more complex than those which interest other horses. I had very little free time, what with one thing and another - always panting, partly to keep cool and partly to oxygenate its eight-times body. Its windpipe, after all, had only four times the normal area of cross section.
And then there was eating. Somehow it had to eat, every day, eight times the amount that would satisfy a normal horse and had to push all that food down an esophagus only four times the caliber of the normal. The blood vessels, too, were reduced in relative size, and this made circulation more difficult and put extra strain on the heart.
A sad beast.
The fable shows what inevitably happens when two or more variables, whose curves are discrepant, interact. That is what produces the interaction between change and tolerance. For instance, gradual growth in a population, whether of automobiles or of people, has no perceptible effect upon a transportation system until suddenly the threshold of tolerance is passed and the traffic jams. The changing of one variable exposes a critical value of the other.
Of all such cases, the best known today is the behavior of fissionable material in the atom bomb. The uranium occurs in nature and is continually undergoing fission, but no explosion occurs because no chain reaction is established. Each atom, as it breaks, gives off neutrons that, that if they hit another uranium atom, may cause fission, but many neutrons are merely lost. Unless the lump of uranium is of critical size, an average of less than one neutron from each fission will break another atom, and the chain will dwindle. If the lump is made bigger, a larger fraction of the neutrons will hit uranium atoms to cause fission. The process will then achieve positive exponential gain and become an explosion.
In the case of the imaginary horse, length, surface area, and volume (or mass) become discrepant because their curves of increase have mutually nonlinear characteristics. Surface varies as the square of length, volume varies as the cube of length, and surface varies as the 2/3 power of volume.
For the horse (and for all real creatures), the matter becomes more serious because to remain alive, many internal motions must be maintained. There is an internal logistics of blood, food, oxygen, and excretory products and a logistics of information in the form of neural and hormonal messages.
The harbor porpoise, which is about three feet long, with a jacket of blubber about one inch thick and a surface area of about six square feet, has a known heat budget that balances comfortably in Arctic waters. The heat budget of a big whale, which is about ten times the length of the porpoise (i.e. 1,000 times the volume and 100 times the surface), with a blubber jacket nearly twelve inches thick, is totally mysterious. Presumably, they have a superior logistic system moving blood through the dorsal fins and tail flukes, where all cetaceans get rid of heat.
The fact of growth adds another order of complexity to the problems of bigness in living things. Will growth alter the proportions of the organism? These problems of the limitation of growth are met in very different ways by different creatures.
A simple case is that of the palms, which do not adjust their girth to compensate for their height. An oak tree with growing tissue (cambium) between its wood, and its bark grows in length and width throughout its life. But a coconut palm, whose only growing tissue is the apex of the trunk (the so-called millionaire's salad, which can only be got at the price of killing the palm), simply gets taller and taller, with some slow increase of the bole at its base. For this organism, the limitation of height is simply a normal part of its adaptation of a niche. The sheer mechanical instability of excessive height without compensation in girth provides its normal way of death.
Many plants avoid (or solve?) these problems of the limitation of growth by linking their life-span to the calendar or to their own reproductive cycle. Annuals start a new generation each year, and plants like the so-called century plant (yucca) may live many years but, like the salmon, inevitably die when they reproduce. Except for multiple branching within the flowering head, the yucca makes no branches. The branching influorescence itself is its terminal stem; when that has completed its function, the plant dies. Its death is normal to its way of life.
Among some higher animals, growth is controlled. The creature reaches a size or age or stage at which growth simply stops (i.e., is stopped by chemical or other messages within the organization of the creature). The cells, under control, cease to grow and divide. When controls no longer operate (by failure to generate the message or failure to receive it), the result is cancer. Where do such messages originate, what triggers their sending, and in what presumably chemical code are these messages immanent? What controls the nearly perfect external bilateral symmetry of the mammalian body? We have remarkably
little knowledge of the message system that controls growth. There must be a whole interlocking system as yet scarcely studied.



Tuesday, February 15, 2011

the Places of Tao


The Dhaulagiri (8167 m., western Himalaya, Nepal) South Face represents perhaps the greatest unsolved climbing problem, and may be impossible. From the base of the wall to the summit there is a difference of about 4000 m. with a slope ranging from 50° to 90° on ice, with difficulty from M5 to M7+. In particolar the band of rocks which runs across the whole wall at 7200 m. is considered virtually impossible.
The best attempt on this wall has been done by Tomaz Humar in 1999:


Climbing till the band of rocks Humar was forced to traverse to reach the southest crest.


Tribute to Tao: Stanley Kubrick






Childwickbury Green Manor

Hertfordshire, England



Tao: second quantum leap


Monday, February 14, 2011

the Paths of Complex Tao


To reach to the point that you do not know,
you need to take the road you do not know.

In the absence of paradigms for complexity, resulting in the impossibility to define methodologies for description and calculating/computing in replacement/integration of the previous used by classic science, Edgar Morin has proposed somepaths to complexity, or better to complexities, as - naturally - the same complexity is complex.
Morin states that the complexity shows as difficulty and uncertainty and not as clarity and answer typical of the paradigms of classical science. The problem is therefore to understand if it is possible to challenge of uncertainty and complexity.
Today, the biological and physical sciences are characterized by a crisis of the simple explanation, and then what appeared to be the residues of the human sciences such as uncertainty and disorder are part of the problem of scientific knowledge.
The complexity is an obstacle, a challenge. It seems negative or regressive because it involves the reintegration of the uncertainty in a knowledge that was going towards the conquest of absolute certainty, absolute that is no longer possible.

Morin introduces some typical characteristics of complexity:
  • the problem of contradiction
Morin indicates in Niels Bohr the author of the most logic braking of science. Formulating the Complementarity Principle in the Copenaghen interpretation of the quantum duality probability wave/particle for the first time in history of science with the classic aristotelian logic of or/or introducing with spectacular theoretical and experimental results the logic of and/and, moving from a single logic to a dialogic, that is accepting that two independent and dual logics coexist at the same time.
  • the logic limitation
After the proof of the Gödel incompleteness theorems and the development of Tarski logic it became obvious that no system of explanation can explained itself completely by itself.
  •   the meta-complexus
It is not possible to approach the complexity through a single and preliminary definition but it is necessary to follow different paths, so different that one might wonder if there are many and different complexities. All the various complexities such as wires are woven together to form the unity of the texture of complexity. So we arrive at complexus of complexus, namely that core of the complexity in which the various complexities encounter.
  • the multi-dimensional thinking
The positive aspect that comes from complexity is the nedd of a multidimensional and dialogic thinking, where in the latter two logics, two natures are connected in a unity without thereby dissolve the duality in unity. The notion of dialogic is not a concept that avoids the logical and empirical constraints but is likely to face difficulties, to fight with the real.
La challenge of complexity makes us give up forever the myth of the total universe clarification, encouraging us to continue the adventure of knowledge which is a dialogue with the universe.
The aim of our knowledge is not to close but to open the dialogue with the universe. The Method of Complexity requires us to think without never closing the concepts. The complexity is just the conjunction of concepts that are fighting each other, cohabit with the complexity and conflict trying to keep from falling inside.
The complexity also leads to think in organizational form, that is to understand how the organization does not result in a few laws but, on the contrary, needs a highly developed thought.

The paths indicated by Morin that lead to the challenge of complexity are:

THE PATH OF IRREDUCIBILITY OF RANDOMNESS AND DISORDER
randomness and disorder are inevitably present in the universe and play an active role in its evolution, but we are not able to resolve the uncertainty caused by the notions of disorder and randomness. The same randomness is not sure to be an accident, or an accidental event of which that the causes are unknown.

THE OVERCOMING OF THE LIMITS WHICH ELIMINATED THE SINGULARITY, THE LOCALITY AND THE TEMPORALITY
it is not possible to delete the singular and the local using the universal. Indeed, it is necessary to connect these concepts, for example in contemporary biology the species are no longer considered as a framework within which the individual is a singular case. In contrast, every living species is considered as a singularity that produces singularity within the most diverse physical-chemical organizations that exist. We must connect the singular, the local and the universal

THE PATH OF COMPLICATION
this problem arised when it was realized that the biological and social phenomena had a infinite number  of interactions and di interazioni e inter-feedbacks.

COMPLEMENTARITY BETWEEN ORDER, DISORDER ANDORGANIZATION
comes into play the concept deployed by Von Foerster “Order fron Noise”: from a disordered motion may arise from organized phenomena.

THE PATH OF ORGANIZATION
the organization determines a system from different elements. Is a unit and at the same time a multiplicity unitas multiplex: it should not dissolve the multiple in the one, nor the one in the multiple. A system is something more and something less of the sum of its parts. Something more because brings out more of the qualities that would not exist without the organization, something less because this organization imposes some constraints that limit some of the potential found in the individual parts. The qualities that emerge, exercis feedback on the individual parts and may stimulate and express their full potential. For example, culture, language or education are properties that can only be a matter of social totality and, in turn, feedbacking on different parts of the society, allow the development of mind and intelligence of individuals.

HOLOGRAMATIC PRINCIPLE AND RECURSIVE ORGANIZATION
in the field of complexity emerges the hologramatic principle: not only the part is in everything, but everything is in the part. In trying to understand the phenomenon one must go from the parts to the whole and from the whole to the parts by adopting a non-linear and circular explanation. The hologram is a physical image that has the quality that each point contains almost all the information of the whole, such as criminal law, the fact that every cell of an organism contains the genetic information of the whole organism.
The hologramatic principle should be connected to the recursive organization principle: a recursive process is a process in which the products and effects are at the same time causes and producers of what that produce them. The idea of recursion is therefore a breaking idea with the of linear idea of cause/effect, product/producer, structure/superstructure;for example the reproduction produces individuals that produce the reproductive cycle.

THE CRISIS OF CLARITY AND OF THE SEPARATION IN THE EXPLANATION
there is a break with the idea that truth is given by the clarity of ideas. The truth is also evident in the ambiguity and in the apparent confusion. It is no longer possible to make a boundary between science and non science, between subject and object, between organism and environment as occured previously for experimental science: it took a subject, extracted it from its context and placed it in an artificial environment, then modified it and checked its modifications.
In addition not to isolate a self-organizing system from its environment, it is necessary to connect this system to its environment, or to obtain a self-eco-organization. The concept of autonomy implies that a system is both open and closed (the result of an operation of the system still falls within the boundaries of the system). This type of system has to maintain its individuality and originality.

it is not possible to eliminate the observer from the observations that are made. Always keeping in mind the hologramatic principle, the observer is in the society, but the society is also in the observer. Therefore the observer has to integrate himself into its observation and in its conception and should try to understand its socioculturalhic et nunc. Principio di integrazione dell’osservatore: regardless of the theory and whatever its content, must account that the observer is part of it: 

"... whatever the theory, and whatever its content, it must account of what makes it possible to produce the theory itself. If in any case is unable to account for this, it must also know that the problem is posed."





Friday, February 11, 2011

Immortal Dialogues of Tao: Have you ever considered ... Willard ... any real freedoms?


WILLARD "It smelled like slow death in there, malaria, nightmares. This was the end of the river allright."


COLONEL KURTZ "Where are you from Willard ?
WILLARD "I'm from Ohio, sir."
KURTZ "Were you born there ?"
WILLARD "Yes, sir."
KURTZ "Whereabouts ?"
WILLARD "Toledo, sir."
KURTZ "How far were you from the river ?"
WILLARD "The Ohio river, sir?"
KURTZ "Uh Uh..."
WILLARD "About 200 miles."
KURTZ "I went down that river when I was a kid. There's a place in the river...I can't remember... Must have been a gardenia plantation at one time. All wild and overgrown now, but about five miles you'd think that heaven just fell on the earth in the form of gardenias...
Have you ever considered any real freedoms? Freedoms - from the opinions of others... Even the opinions of yourself.
They say why..., Willard, why they wanted to terminate my command ?"
WILLARD "I was sent on a classified mission, sir."
KURTZ "Ain't no longer classified, is it? What did they tell you ?"
WILLARD "They told me that you had gone totally insane and that your methods were unsound."
KURTZ "Are my methods unsound?"
WILLARD "I don't see any method at all, sir."
KURTZ "I expected someone like you. What did you expect?"
Willard only shakes his head
KURTZ "Are you an assassin?"
WILLARD "I'm a soldier."
KURTZ "You're neither. You're an errand boy, sent by grocery clerks to collect a bill."